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Below the spermaceti organ lies the "junk" which consists of compartments of spermaceti separated by cartilage. It is analogous to the melon found in other toothed whales.
Running through the head are two air passages. The left passage runs alongside the spermaceti organ and goes directly to the blowhole, whilst the right passage runs underneath the spermaceti organ and passes air through a pair of phonic lips and into the distal sac at the very front of the nose.
The distal sac is connected to the blowhole and the terminus of the left passage. When the whale is submerged, it can close the blowhole, and air that passes through the phonic lips can circulate back to the lungs.
The sperm whale, unlike other odontocetes, has only one pair of phonic lips, whereas all other toothed whales have two,  and it is located at the front of the nose instead of behind the melon.
At the posterior end of this spermaceti complex is the frontal sac, which covers the concave surface of the cranium. The anterior wall is smooth.
The knobbly surface reflects sound waves that come through the spermaceti organ from the phonic lips. The grooves between the knobs trap a film of air that is consistent whatever the orientation or depth of the whale, making it an excellent sound mirror.
The spermaceti organs may also help adjust the whale's buoyancy. It is hypothesized that before the whale dives, cold water enters the organ, and it is likely that the blood vessels constrict, reducing blood flow, and, hence, temperature.
The wax therefore solidifies and reduces in volume. Herman Melville 's fictional story Moby-Dick suggests that the "case" containing the spermaceti serves as a battering ram for use in fights between males.
A piece of the posterior wall of the frontal sac. The grooves between the knobs trap a consistent film of air, making it an excellent sound mirror.
The sperm whale's eye does not differ greatly from those of other toothed whales except in size. The cornea is elliptical and the lens is spherical.
There are no ciliary muscles. The choroid is very thick and contains a fibrous tapetum lucidum. Like other toothed whales, the sperm whale can retract and protrude its eyes, thanks to a 2-cm-thick retractor muscle attached around the eye at the equator,  but are unable to roll the eyes in their sockets.
According to Fristrup and Harbison ,  sperm whale's eyes afford good vision and sensitivity to light. They conjectured that sperm whales use vision to hunt squid, either by detecting silhouettes from below or by detecting bioluminescence.
If sperm whales detect silhouettes, Fristrup and Harbison suggested that they hunt upside down, allowing them to use the forward parts of the ventral visual fields for binocular vision.
For some time researchers have been aware that pods of sperm whales may sleep for short periods, assuming a vertical position with their heads just below or at the surface.
A study published in Current Biology recorded evidence that whales may sleep with both sides of the brain. It appears that some whales may fall into a deep sleep for about 7 percent of the time, most often between 6 p.
Capable of emitting sounds at a volume of decibels —more than an airplane jet engine at takeoff—the sperm whale is the loudest animal in the world.
When echolocating , the sperm whale emits a directionally focused beam of broadband clicks. Clicks are generated by forcing air through a pair of phonic lips also known as "monkey lips" or "museau de singe" at the front end of the nose, just below the blowhole.
The sound then travels backwards along the length of the nose through the spermaceti organ. Most of the sound energy is then reflected off the frontal sac at the cranium and into the melon, whose lens-like structure focuses it.
This back and forth reflection which happens on the scale of a few milliseconds creates a multi-pulse click structure. However, if the whale matures and the size of the spermaceti organ increases, the tone of the whale's click will also change.
A continuous fat-filled canal transmits received sounds to the inner ear. The source of the air forced through the phonic lips is the right nasal passage.
While the left nasal passage opens to the blow hole, the right nasal passage has evolved to supply air to the phonic lips. It is thought that the nostrils of the land-based ancestor of the sperm whale migrated through evolution to their current functions, the left nostril becoming the blowhole and the right nostril becoming the phonic lips.
Air that passes through the phonic lips passes into the distal sac, then back down through the left nasal passage. This recycling of air allows the whale to continuously generate clicks for as long as it is submerged.
A creak is a rapid series of high-frequency clicks that sounds somewhat like a creaky door hinge. It is typically used when homing in on prey.
A coda is a short pattern of 3 to 20 clicks that is used in social situations. They were once thought to be a way by which individuals identified themselves, but individuals have been observed producing multiple codas, and the same codas are used by multiple individuals.
Despite evidence that sperm whales share similar codas, it is still unknown whether sperm whales possess individually specific coda repertoires or whether individuals make codas at different rates.
Slow clicks are heard only in the presence of males it is not certain whether females occasionally make them. Outside breeding grounds, slow clicks are rarely heard, and usually near the surface.
Sperm whales are among the most cosmopolitan species. They are relatively abundant from the poles to the equator and are found in all the oceans. They inhabit the Mediterranean Sea , but not the Black Sea ,  while their presence in the Red Sea is uncertain.
Lack of prey? Populations are denser close to continental shelves and canyons. Historical catch records suggest there could have been smaller aggression grounds in the Sea of Japan as well.
Grown males are known to enter surprisingly shallow bays to rest whales will be in state of rest during these occasions. There are unique, coastal groups reported from various areas among the globe such as Scotland ,  and Shiretoko Peninsula, off Kaikoura, in the Davao Gulf.
Such coastal groups were more abundant in pre-whaling days. Genetic analysis indicates that the world population of sperm whales originated in the Pacific Ocean from a population of about 10, animals around , years ago, when expanding ice caps blocked off their access to other seas.
In particular, colonization of the Atlantic was revealed to have occurred multiple times during this expansion of their range.
One study published in collected evidence that suggests that female sperm whales may collaborate when hunting Humboldt squid.
It is suggested that the whales can see the squid silhouetted above them against the dim surface light.
An older study, examining whales captured by the New Zealand whaling fleet in the Cook Strait region, found a 1. Long-line fishing operations in the Gulf of Alaska complain that sperm whales take advantage of their fishing operations to eat desirable species straight off the line, sparing the whales the need to hunt.
Video footage has been captured of a large male sperm whale "bouncing" a long line, to gain the fish. Sperm whales have also been noted to feed on bioluminescent pyrosomes such as Pyrosoma atlanticum.
The sharp beak of a consumed squid lodged in the whale's intestine may lead to the production of ambergris , analogous to the production of pearls in oysters.
Sperm whales hunt through echolocation. Their clicks are among the most powerful sounds in the animal kingdom see above.
It has been hypothesised that it can stun prey with its clicks. Experimental studies attempting to duplicate this effect have been unable to replicate the supposed injuries, casting doubt on this idea.
It has been stated that sperm whales, as well as other large cetaceans, help fertilise the surface of the ocean by consuming nutrients in the depths and transporting those nutrients to the oceans' surface when they defecate, an effect known as the whale pump.
How they choose mates has not been definitively determined. Bulls will fight with each other over females, and males will mate with multiple females, making them polygynous , but they do not dominate the group as in a harem.
Females become fertile at around 9 years of age. The other adults may jostle and bite the newborn in its first hours.
Lactation proceeds for 19 to 42 months, but calves, rarely, may suckle up to 13 years. This gives it a consistency similar to cottage cheese,  which prevents it from dissolving in the water before the calf can eat it.
Males become sexually mature at 18 years. Upon reaching sexual maturity, males move to higher latitudes , where the water is colder and feeding is more productive.
Females remain at lower latitudes. Like elephants, females and their young live in matriarchal groups called pods, while bulls live apart. Bulls sometimes form loose bachelor groups with other males of similar age and size.
As they grow older, they typically live solitary lives, only returning to the pod to socialize or to breed. A social unit is a group of sperm whales who live and travel together over a period of years.
Individuals rarely, if ever, join or leave a social unit. There is a huge variance in the size of social units. They are most commonly between six and nine individuals in size but can have more than twenty.
Socializing usually takes place in the afternoon. When sperm whales socialize, they emit complex patterns of clicks called codas. They will spend much of the time rubbing against each other.
Tracking of diving whales suggests that groups engage in herding of prey, similar to bait balls created by other species, though the research needs to be confirmed by tracking the prey.
The most common natural predator of sperm whales is the killer whale , but pilot whales and false killer whales sometimes harass them.
The females will protect their calves or an injured adult by encircling them. They may face inwards with their tails out the 'marguerite formation', named after the flower.
The heavy and powerful tail of an adult whale is potentially capable of delivering lethal blows. Other than sperm whales, southern right whales had been observed to perform similar formations.
But strike a member of the harem school, and her companions swim around her with every token of concern, sometimes lingering so near her and so long, as themselves to fall a prey.
If the killer whale pod is large, its members may sometimes be able to kill adult female sperm whales and can at least injure an entire pod of sperm whales.
An incident was filmed from a long-line trawler: a killer whale pod was systematically taking fish caught on the trawler's long lines as the lines were being pulled into the ship when a male sperm whale appeared to repeatedly charge the killer whale pod in an attempt to drive them away; it was speculated by the film crew that the sperm whale was attempting to access the same fish.
The killer whales employed a tail outward and tail-slapping defensive position against the bull sperm whale similar to that used by female sperm whales against attacking killer whales.
Some authors consider the killer whales "usually" behaviorally dominant over sperm whales but express that the two species are "fairly evenly matched", with the killer whales' greater aggression, more considerable biting force for their size and predatory prowess more than compensating for their smaller size.
Sperm whales are not known for forging bonds with other species, but it was observed that a bottlenose dolphin with a spinal deformity had been accepted into a pod of sperm whales.
South Asian river dolphin. Other river dolphins. Although the fossil record is poor,  several extinct genera have been assigned to the clade Physeteroidea , which includes the last common ancestor of the modern sperm whale, pygmy sperm whales , dwarf sperm whales , and extinct physeteroids.
These fossils include Ferecetotherium , Idiorophus , Diaphorocetus , Aulophyseter , Orycterocetus , Scaldicetus , Placoziphius , Zygophyseter and Acrophyseter.
Diaphorocetus , from Argentina , has been dated to the early Miocene. Fossil sperm whales from the Middle Miocene include Aulophyseter , Idiorophus and Orycterocetus , all of which were found on the West Coast of the United States, and Scaldicetus , found in Europe and Japan.
Fossil sperm whales differ from modern sperm whales in tooth count and the shape of the face and jaws. Other fossil sperm whales with adaptations similar to this are collectively known as killer sperm whales.
Two fossil species belonging to the modern genus Physeter have been recognized so far: P. These analyses also confirm that there was a rapid evolutionary radiation diversification of the Physeteroidea in the Miocene period.
Spermaceti , obtained primarily from the spermaceti organ, and sperm oil , obtained primarily from the blubber in the body, were much sought after by 18th, 19th, and 20th century whalers.
These substances found a variety of commercial applications, such as candles , soap , cosmetics , machine oil, other specialised lubricants, lamp oil, pencils, crayons, leather waterproofing, rust-proofing materials and many pharmaceutical compounds.
Prior to the early eighteenth century, hunting was mostly by indigenous Indonesians. Judge Paul Dudley , in his Essay upon the Natural History of Whales , states that a certain Atkins, 10 or 12 years in the trade, was among the first to catch sperm whales sometime around off the New England coast.
There were only a few recorded instances during the first few decades —s of offshore sperm whaling. Instead, sloops concentrated on the Nantucket Shoals , where they would have taken right whales or went to the Davis Strait region to catch bowhead whales.
By the early s, with the advent of spermaceti candles before , American vessels began to focus on sperm whales. The diary of Benjamin Bangs — shows that, along with the bumpkin sloop he sailed, he found three other sloops flensing sperm whales off the coast of North Carolina in late May American sperm whaling soon spread from the east coast of the American colonies to the Gulf Stream , the Grand Banks , West Africa , the Azores , and the South Atlantic s.
From to Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island ports produced 45, barrels of sperm oil annually, compared to 8, of whale oil. Spermaceti oil was important in public lighting for example, in lighthouses, where it was used in the United States until , when it was replaced by lard oil, in turn replaced by petroleum and for lubricating the machines such as those used in cotton mills of the Industrial Revolution.
Sperm whaling declined in the second half of the nineteenth century, as petroleum came into broader use. In that sense, petroleum use may be said to have protected whale populations from even greater exploitation.
The fleet's scope and size increased over time, and larger ships entered the fishery. In the late 18th century and early 19th century, sperm whaling ships sailed to the equatorial Pacific, the Indian Ocean, Japan, the coast of Arabia, Australia and New Zealand.
When dealing with a threat, sperm whales will use their huge head effectively as a battering ram. Only 8 out of 21 sailors survived to be rescued by other ships.
The sperm whale's ivory-like teeth were often sought by 18th- and 19th-century whalers, who used them to produce inked carvings known as scrimshaw.
Like walrus ivory, sperm whale ivory has two distinct layers. However, sperm whale ivory contains a much thicker inner layer.
Though a widely practised art in the 19th century, scrimshaw using genuine sperm whale ivory declined substantially after the retirement of the whaling fleets in the s.
Currently the Endangered Species Act and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES , prevents the sales of or trade in sperm whale ivory harvested after or scrimshaw crafted from it.
Modern whaling was more efficient than open-boat whaling, employing steam-powered ships and exploding harpoons.
Initially, modern whaling activity focused on large baleen whales , but as these populations were taken, sperm whaling increased.
Spermaceti , the fine waxy oil produced by sperm whales, was in high demand. In both the — and — seasons, Norwegian expeditions took over 3, sperm whales off the coast of Peru alone.
After World War II , whaling continued unabated to obtain oil for cosmetics and high-performance machinery, such as automobile transmissions.
The hunting led to the near-extinction of large whales, including sperm whales, until bans on whale oil use were instituted in The International Whaling Commission gave the species full protection in , but hunting by Japan in the northern Pacific Ocean continued until It is estimated that the historic worldwide population numbered 1,, before commercial sperm whaling began in the early 18th century.
Sperm whales increase levels of primary production and carbon export by depositing iron-rich faeces into surface waters of the Southern Ocean.
The iron-rich faeces cause phytoplankton to grow and take up more carbon from the atmosphere. When the phytoplankton dies, it sinks to the deep ocean and takes the atmospheric carbon with it.
By reducing the abundance of sperm whales in the Southern Ocean, whaling has resulted in an extra 2 million tonnes of carbon remaining in the atmosphere each year.
Remaining sperm whale populations are large enough that the species' conservation status is rated as vulnerable rather than endangered.
The total number of sperm whales in the world is unknown, but is thought to be in the hundreds of thousands.
Commercial whaling has ceased,  and the species is protected almost worldwide, though records indicate that in the year period starting from , Japan has caught 51 sperm whales.